Barley

Raw barley
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,474 kJ (352 kcal)
Carbohydrates 77.7 g
- Sugars 0.8 g
- Dietary fiber 15.6 g
Fat 1.2 g
Protein 9.9 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg (15%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.1 mg (7%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 4.6 mg (31%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.3 mg (6%)
Vitamin B6 0.3 mg (23%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 23 µg (6%)
Vitamin C 0.0 mg (0%)
Calcium 29.0 mg (3%)
Iron 2.5 mg (20%)
Magnesium 79.0 mg (21%)
Phosphorus 221 mg (32%)
Potassium 280 mg (6%)
Zinc 2.1 mg (21%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Barley contains eight essential amino acids. According to a recent study, eating whole grain barley can regulate blood sugar (i.e. reduce blood glucose response to a meal) for up to 10 hours after consumption compared to white or even whole-grain wheat, which has a similar glycemic index. The effect was attributed to colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. Barley can also be used as a coffee substitute. Hulled barley (or covered barley) is eaten after removing the inedible, fibrous outer hull. Once removed, it is called dehulled barley (or pot barley or scotch barley). Considered a whole grain, dehulled barley still has its bran and germ making it a nutritious and popular health food. Pearl barley (or pearled barley) is dehulled barley which has been steam processed further to remove the bran. It may be polished, a process known as "pearling". Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into a variety of barley products, including flour, flakes similar to oatmeal, and grits.
Barley-meal, a wholemeal barley flour which is lighter than wheatmeal but darker in colour, is used in porridge and gruel in Scotland. Barley-meal gruel is known as Sawiq in the Arab world. With a long history of cultivation in the Middle East, barley is used in a wide range of traditional Assyrian, Arabic, Kurdish, Persian, and Assyrian foodstuffs including kashkak, kashk and murri. Barley soup is traditionally eaten during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. It is also used in soups and stews in Eastern Europe. In Africa, where it is a traditional food plant, it has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.
The six row variety bere is cultivated in Orkney, Shetland, Caithness and the Western Isles in the Scottish Highlands and islands. The grain is used to make beremeal, used locally in bread, biscuits, and the traditional beremeal bannock.